College of Liberal Arts & Sciences

Michael H. Crawford

Social and Behavioral Sciences
Director, Midwest Twin Registry
Director Emeritus, Laboratory of Biological Anthropology
Primary office:
Lippincott Hall, 5


Research Interests

  • Biological Anthropology
  • Anthropological Genetics
  • Demography
  • Molecular Genetics
  • Primate Genetics
  • Genetics of Twins
  • Arctic
  • North and Central America
  • Caribbean
  • Europe

Selected Publications


Crawford, MH and B Campbell (eds.) 2012 Causes and Consequences of Human Migration. Cambridge University Press.

Crawford, M.H., ed. (2006) Anthropological Genetics: Theory, Methods and Applications. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK.

Crawford, M.H. (2001) The Origins of Native Americans: Evidence from Anthropological Genetics. University Press. Cambridge, UK.

Crawford, M.H. (2000) Different Seasons: Biological Aging in Midwester Mennonites, United States. University of Kansas Press

Crawford, M.H. and P.L. Workman (1973) Methods and Theories of Anthropological Genetics. University of New Mexico Press

Books Chapters

Rubicz, R, P Melton, and MH Crawford (2006) Molecular Markers in Anthropological Genetic Studies. Chapter 6. In: Anthropological Genetics, Cambridge University Press.

Crawford, MH (2006) Foundations of Anthropological Genetics. Chapter 1. In: Anthropological Genetics, Cambridge University Press.

Crawford, MH (2006) The Importance of Field Research in Anthropological Genetics: Methods, Experiences and Results. Chapter 4. In: Anthropological Genetics, Cambridge University Press.

Uttley, M. and M.H. Crawford (2005) Biological Indicators of Functional Age: A Case Study. In: Human Clocks: The Bio-Cultural Meanings of Age. Population, Family, and Society. (eds. C. Sauvain-Dugerdil and N Mascie-Taylor), Peter Lang, Publishers, Bern, pp. 85-123.

Journal Articles

Osman, AE, H Alsaf, GK Tay, J Theyab, M Mubasher, N Eltayeb-El Sheikh, H AlHarthi, MH Crawford, and G El Ghazali 2014 Autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) variation based on 15 loci in a population from the Central Region (Riyadh Province) of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Forensic Research 6: 1-5.

Crawford, MH 2014 Questions and Answers about Anthropological Genetics. Biome (journal published by Biomedical Central). February 17. PDF

Fagundes, N, A Tagliani-Ribeiro, R Rubicz, LT Nichols, MH Crawford, FM Salzano and SL Bonatto.2014 How strong was the bottleneck associated to the peopling of the Americas? New insights from multilocus sequence data. American Journal of Physical Anthropology (in press)

Raghavan, M, M DeGiorgio, A Albrechtsen, I Moltke, P Skoglund, T Korneliussen, B Gronnow, M Appely, HC Gullov, TM Friesen, W Fitzhugh, H Malmstrom, S Rasmussen, J Olsen, L Melchior, BT Fuller, SM Fahmi, T Stafford, V Grimes, MA Renouf, J Cybulski, N Lynnerup, MM Lahr, K Britton, R Knecht, J Arneborg, M Metspalu, OE Cornejo, A-S Malaspinas, Y Wang, M Rasmussen, V Raghavan, TVO Hansen, E Khusnutdinova, T Pierre, Kirill Dneprovsky, C Andreasen, H Lange, MG Hayes, J Coltrain, VA Spitsyn, A Gotherstrom, L Orlando, T Kivisild, R Villems, MH Crawford, FC Nielsen, J Dissing, J Heinmeier, M Meldgaard, C Bustamonte, DH O’Rourke, M Jakobsson, MT Gilbert, R Nielsen and.E Willerslev 2014 The Genetic Prehistory of the New World Arctic. 2014 Science August 29 345 (6200): 1255832.

Baldi, N, PE Melton, O Graf, and MH Crawford 2014 Effect of recent historical events on migration and isonymic stratification among the Rama Amerindians from Nicaragua. Human Biology 86 (1): 37-50.

Crawford, MH 2014 Genetic structure and its implications for genetic epidemiology: Aleutian Island populations. In: Genomics in Human and Non-Human Primates, eds. R Duggirala, AG Comuzzie, S Williams-Blangero and C Cole. Springer Life Sciences. Galleys available. Rubicz, RC and MH Crawford 2014 Molecular genetic evidence for the origins of North American populations. Handbook of Arctic Archaeology (eds. O. Mason and M Friesen), Oxford University Press. IN PRESS.


Duggan, A, M Whitten, V Wiebe, MH Crawford, A Butthof, V Spitsyn, S Makarov, I Novgorodov, V Osakovsky and B Pakendorf  2013 Investigating the prehistory of Tungusic peoples of Siberia and the Amur-Ussuri region with complete mtDNA sequences and Y-chromosomal markers. PLoS  8 (12): 1-19.

Melton, PE, N Baldi-Salas, R Barrantes and MH Crawford 2013 Microevolution, migration and the populations structure of five Amerindian populations from Nicaragua and Costa Rica. American Journal of Human Biology 25(4): 480-90.

Crawford, MH and KG Beaty 2013 DNA fingerprints in Anthropological Genetics: Past, Present and future.(in honor of Sir Alec Jeffreys)  Investigative Genetics  4(1): 23-33.

Geetha Chittoor, Rector Arya, Vidya S. Farook, Randy David, Sobha Puppala, Roy G. Resendez, Blanca E. Rivera-Chavira, Irene Leal-Berumen, Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas, Juan Carlos López-Alvarenga, Raul A. Bastarrachea, Joanne E. Curran, Subramanian Dhandayuthapani, Lupe Gonzalez, John Blangero, Michael H. Crawford, Esteban M. Vlasich-De La Rosa, Luis Escobedo, Ravindranath Duggirala 2013 Epidemiologic investigation of tuberculosis in a Mexican population from Chihuahua State, Mexico: A pilot study. Journal of Tuberculosis 93: 571-577.

Relethford, JH and MH Crawford 2013 Genetic drift and population history of the Irish Travellers. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop. 150(2): 184-9.

Theyab, JB, S Al-Bustan, MH Crawford 2013 Genetic structure of Kuwaiti populations: Mitochondrial DNA inter- and intra-population variation. Human Biology 84(4): 379-403.


Justice, A, Dean, and MH Crawford 2012 Molecular consequences of migration and urbanization in the Peruvian Amazonia. Chapter 21 In: Causes and Consequences of Human Migration. Cambridge University Press, 449-472.

Campbell, B and MH Crawford 2012 Causes and Consequences. In: Causes and Consequences of Human Migration. Cambridge University Press. Chapter 1, 1-8.

Crawford, M.H. and Dixie West 2012 Evolutionary consequences of human migration: Genetic, historic and archaeological perspectives in the Caribbean and Aleutian Islands. Chapter 5. In: Causes and Consequences of Human Migration. Cambridge University Press, 65-86.

Young, KL, EJ Devor and MH Crawford 2012 Demic expansion or cultural Diffusion: Migration and Basque Origin. Chapter 11. In: Causes and Consequences of Human Migration. Cambridge University Press, 224-249.

Crawford, MH 2012 Obituary for Philippe LeFevre Witier. Human Biology 84(3): 331-333.


Kristin L. Young, Sun, G., Deka, R., and Crawford, M.H. (2011) "Autosomal short tandem repeat genetic variation of the Basques in Spain." Croatian Medical Journal 52: 372-83. Abstract | PDF

Kristin L. Young, Sun, G., Deka, R., and Crawford, M.H. (2011) "Paternal Genetic History of the Basque Population of Spain." Human Biology 83(4):455-475. Abstract | PDF


Dixie L. West, O'Rourke, D.H., Crawford, M.H. (2010) "Introduction: Origins and Settlement of the Indigenous Populations of the Aleutian Archipelago." Human Biology October-December 82(5-6): 481-486. Abstract | PDF

Anne E. Justice, Rubicz, R.C., Chittoor, G., Jantz, R.L., Crawford, M.H. (2010) "Anthropometric Variation Among Bering Sea Natives." Human Biology October-December 82(5-6): 653-675. Abstract | PDF

Michael H. Crawford, Rubicz, R.C., Zlojutro, M. (2010) "Origins of Aleuts and the Genetic Structure of Populations of the Archipelago: Molecular and Archaeological Perspectives." Human Biology October-December 82(5-6): 695-717. Abstract | PDF

Rohina C. Rubicz, Zlojutro, M., Sun, G., Spitsyn, V., Deka, R., Young, K.L., Crawford, M.H. (2010) "Genetic Architecture of a Small, Recently Aggregated Aleut Population: Bering Island, Russia." Human Biology October-December 82(5-6): 719-736. Abstract | PDF

Orion M. Graf, Zlojutro, M., Rubicz, R.C., Crawford, M.H. (2010) "Surname Distributions and Their Association with Y-Chromosome Markers in the Aleutian Islands." Human Biology October-December 82(5-6): 745-757. Abstract | PDF

Denis H. O'Rourke, West, D.L., Crawford, M.H. (2010) "Unangan Past and Present: The Contrasts Between Observed and Inferred Histories." Human Biology June 82(3): 759-764.  Abstract | PDF

Michael H. Crawford (2010) "History of Human Biology (1929-2009)." Human Biology June 82(3): 331-342.  Abstract | PDF

Phillip E. Melton, M. J. Mosher, R. Rubicz, M. Zlojutro, and M.H. Crawford (2010) "Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Mennonite Communities from the Midwestern United States." Human Biology June 82(3): 267-289.  Abstract | PDF

Irene M. Predazzi, Cristina Martínez-Labarga, Lucia Vecchione, Ruggiero Mango, Cinzia Ciccacci, Francesca Amati, Claudio Ottoni, Michael H. Crawford, Olga Rickards, Francesco Romeo & Giuseppe Novelli (2010) "Population differences in allele frequencies at the OLR1 locus may suggest geographic disparities in cardiovascular risk events." Annals of Human Biology; March-April 37(2): 137-149.  Abstract | PDF

Morten Rasmussen, Yingrui Li, Stinus Lindgreen, Jakob Skou Pedersen, Anders Albrechtsen, Ida Moltke, Mait Metspalu, Ene Metspalu, Toomas Kivisild, Ramneek Gupta, Marcelo Bertalan, Kasper Nielsen, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Yong Wang, Maanasa Raghavan, Paula F. Campos, Hanne Munkholm Kamp, Andrew S. Wilson, Andrew Gledhill, Silvana Tridico, Michael Bunce, Eline Deirdre Lorenzen, Jonas Binladen, Xiaosen Guo, Jing Zhao, Xiuqing Zhang, Hao Zhang, Zhuo Li, Minfeng Chen, Ludovic Orlando, Karsten Kristiansen, Mads Bak, Niels Tommerup, Christian Bendixen, Tracey L. Pierre, Bjarne Grønnow, Morten Meldgaard, Claus Andreasen, Sardana A. Fedorova, Ludmila P. Osipova, Thomas F. G. Higham, Christopher B. Ramsey, Thomas V O Hansen, Finn C. Nielsen, Michael H. Crawford, Søren Brunak, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Richard Villems, Rasmus Nielsen, Anders Krogh, Jun Wang & Eske Willerslev (2010) "Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo." Nature 463: 757-762.  Abstract | PDF



Devor, Eric J., Ibrokhim Abdurakhmonov, Mark Zlojutro, Meredith P. Millis, Jessica J. Galbraith, Michael H. Crawford, Shukhrat Shermatov, Zabardast Buriev and Abdusattor Abdukarimov (2009) "Gene Flow at the Crossroads of Humanity: mtDNA Sequence Diversity and Alu Insertion Polymorphism Frequencies in Uzbekistan." The Open Genomics Journal 2: 1-11. PDF

Schroeder, Kari B, Mattias Jakobsson, Michael H Crawford, Theodore G Schurr, Simina M Boca, Donald F Conrad, Raul Y Tito, Ludmilla P Osipova, Larissa A Tarskaia, Sergey I Zhadanov, Jeffrey D Wall, Jonathan K Pritchard, Ripan S Malhi, David G Smith, Noah A Rosenberg (2009) "Haplotypic background of a private allele at high frequency in the Americas." Molecular Biology and Evolution May 26(5): 995-1016.  Abstract | PDF